(of military personnel) to leave service, duty, etc., with no intention of returning: to abandon a hopeless task; abandon a child. ", First recorded in 1470–80; from Middle French, "Girty had deserted his military post at Port Pitt, and become an outlaw of his own volition. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. desert (n.2) c. 1300, "fact of deserving a certain treatment (for good or ill) for one's behavior," from Old French deserte "merit, recompense," noun use of past participle of deservir "be worthy to have," ultimately from Latin deservire "serve well," from de-"completely" (see de-) + servire "to serve" (see serve (v.)). Like the poppy, this drought-tolerant wildflower will open in the morning and close in the evening. A large, dry, barren region, usually having sandy or rocky soil and little or no vegetation. So, a desert food chain starts. Scientifically known as Agave victoria-reginae, this agave is native to the Chihuahuan desert of Mexico. Wadi Rum (Arabic: وادي رم Wādī Ramm), known also as the Valley of the Moon (Arabic: وادي القمر Wādī al-Qamar), is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km (37 mi) to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan.. Wadi Rum Protected Area was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011. Shares T… The hardiness of the plant tells you which USDA cold hardiness zones best suit the plant. ", "A long line of more than a score of camels was something in itself, not to mention the riders in their desert costume. Hot deserts can be found close to the equator. will bloom all summer in California and in cooler coastal climates. plantain meaning malayalam. Its leaves are smooth and pliable, and unlike its other agave cousins, the leaves are completely spineless — making it a safe choice for planting in gardens. Also known as Euphorbia tirucalli, the plant’s green pencil-like sticks turn bright coral when the plant is under stress. Plants named in the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible or Tenakh) are given with their Hebrew name, while those mentioned in the New Testament are given with their Greek names. Because of these factors, the desert sage is not fitting for fertile soil within most garden settings. Living stones, known as lithops, are a prime example of evolution at its best. It can be used as a border or as ground cover, and although it does reseed it isn’t aggressive and will not invade the garden. Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface, with the principal warm deserts located mainly along the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, where warm, rising equatorial air masses that have already lost most of their moisture descend over the subtropical regions. Some desert plants, such as cactuses, have shallow, wide-spreading root systems. Partial sun, or brightly-lit shade is best. Plants are generally scattered mosses and grasses that are able to survive the cold by remaining low to the ground, avoiding the wind, and animal life can include both large and small mammals, such as deer and jackrabbits, as well as a variety of raptors and other birds. Image Credit David Sola . One reason for its scarcity is that it completely relies on the female pronuba moth for survival. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Although they have adapted to survive in such harsh climates, their bloom cycles are extremely sensitive and dependent on a variety of factors including frequency of rainfall during winter, moderate temperatures, wind, and elevation. Citrus × meyeri, the Meyer lemon, is a hybrid citrus fruit native to China.It is a cross between a citron and a mandarin/pomelo hybrid distinct from the common or bitter lemon.. A popular choice amongst modern landscapers, these succulents are widely used in drought-tolerant landscaping, or xeriscaping. The whitestem paperflower is native to the southwestern United States and can be found in Southern California, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico all the way to northern Mexico. One interesting fact about this plant is that it can be medicinally used as a natural pain reliever. It is extremely drought-tolerant and thrives in hardiness zone 7. Peyote, from the Nahuatl word peyōtl, meaning “glistening,” is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.It’s been used by Native Americans for spiritual purposes for at least 5,500 years. Types of desert ecosystems. desert (n.2) c. 1300, "fact of deserving a certain treatment (for good or ill) for one's behavior," from Old French deserte "merit, recompense," noun use of past participle of deservir "be worthy to have," ultimately from Latin deservire "serve well," from de-"completely" (see de-) + servire "to serve" (see serve (v.)). (sometimes followed by. Carnivorous plants live in places where there are no nutrients in the soil. Mathew. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? As long as you provide these drought-tolerant plants with good drainage, sandy soil, and sunshine, they will thrive for years. ", "Some will always mistake the degree of their own desert. The idea that plants could talk via scent, or volatile chemicals, was roundly pooh-poohed in the 1980s, but Karban and others went on to prove that plants … Colors range from green to blue-green, with an ashy finish that gives the colors a muted tone. By late March, when ski season would normally be in full swing, hotels were empty, streets deserted. It is common to see flowering buds sealed into a hard ball. This tree is so rare that it only grows in the Mojave desert. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Desert The word "desert" can be an adjective, noun, or verb.It has the following meanings: Arid land with little or no vegetation. An area with an annual rainfall of fewer than 25 centimeters (9.75 inches) generally qualifies as a desert. Learn more. ", Dictionary.com Unabridged In spite of the dryness, however, some animals and plants have adapted to desert life and thrive in these harsh environments. This desert plant comes in many varieties like the Hedgehog cactus, Claret Cup cactus, King’s Cup cactus, Pancake Prickly Pear cactus, and the Mound cactus, to name a few. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. This fascinating tree is extremely slow-growing, and only grows about 2-3 inches a year. He first looked up in the air, as on the whole the likeliest quarter for a voice to come from in this desert, then around. The stems are cylindrical in shape and grow up to 1 foot long and 1 to 1½ inches thick. This biome has a layer of soil that can either be sandy, gravelly, or stony, depending on the type of desert. Quick Facts. Plants. There are many plants in the desert that can survive in a xeriscape garden or even in a glass terrarium. They are popular for planting in hanging baskets, which allow the long stems to drape to the ground. This popular desert tree is known for its striking green trunk and bright yellow flowers. The plants soak up water quickly and store it in their cells. Here we’ve outlined the top 5 most popular desert trees, shrubs, and grasses. John C. Eccleston, from his lectures on Dante Alighieri, Black and White: Land, Labor, and Politics in the South, a region that is devoid or almost devoid of vegetation, esp because of low rainfall, a place which lacks some desirable feature or quality, of, relating to, or like a desert; infertile or desolate, to leave or abandon (a person, place, etc) without intending to return, esp in violation of a duty, promise, or obligation, to abscond from (a post or duty) with no intention of returning, to give up or postpone (a case or charge), something that is deserved or merited; just reward or punishment, the state of deserving a reward or punishment. The Sahara Desert. Thamnosma montana, on which to lay their Unlike many common desert trees, the tree aloe is fast-growing. Desert Rose (Adenium obesum) Plant Care Instructions with Watering, Pruning, and Other Requirements What is a Desert Rose A tropical evergreen succulent shrub from the dogbane family, the desert rose is a popular garden or indoor plant with striking 2 … Cool deserts are located at higher elevations in the temperate regions, often on the lee side of a barrier mountain range where the prevailing winds drop their moisture before crossing the range. The desert biome covers about one-fifth of Earth’s surface. I cannot desert my aunt, nor can I quit the Swash alone in company with her mate. Thus, desert plants have become popular for landscaping because they are easy to take care of due to their drought-tolerant capabilities. Several desert plants are perennial (you need to plant them only once), hardy, low care, relatively drought tolerant, easy to find, pretty cheap to buy, and provide lovely color many times during the year. To cope with the… However, if you look closely, the fuzzy specks that adorn this cactus are actually small clusters of tiny little spines. The Palo Verde is the “nurse” plant of the Saguaro cactus, as the two species are often found inhabiting the same areas. Examples include: Cacti. Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. Each flower bears a meaning and has a unique symbol. Find more Arabic words at wordhippo.com! Some flowers convey good wishes, some show solemn sympathy, while some simply say, “I love you.” Indeed, flower meanings evince all kinds of sentiments and the pretty blooms can express what words cannot. Desert rains are often light and brief, and the soil dries rapidly under an intense sun. Also known as Aloe barberae, the tree blooms in June and July and bears pink flowers. Many plants also help inhibit algae growth as their leaves shade the water so algae can't grow and bloom. It has about 9 to 10 ribs on the stem. Click to get the latest Buzzing content. Your local Lowe's stocks plants that are well suited to your region. Outdoor plants get more nutrients from their surrounding environment than do indoor plants, meaning that they need to be fertilized much less. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. CAM metabolism is common in plants that live in hot, dry environments where water is difficult to gain and conserve. How does a crop’s environment shape a food’s smell and taste? Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All of our plants are grown under the same conditions, although not all the plants are the same. Did you know that all cacti are succulents, but not all succulents are cacti? However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). When cold weather approaches, take the plants inside for the winter. Deserts usually get at most 50 centimeters (20 inches) of rainfall a year, and the organisms that live in deserts are adapted to this extremely dry climate.. Plants in deserts have adaptations to conserve water. The Ocotillo prefers to grow in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts of Southeast California to West Texas and south into Mexico. Desert, any large, extremely dry area of land with sparse vegetation. oasis definition: 1. a place in a desert where there is water and therefore plants and trees and sometimes a village…. Shrubs and grasses are suited to withstand the harsh dry winds of the desert, with some shrubs that can grow into the size of trees. It's hot in the desert. The thick stone-shaped leaves also allow the plant to store as much water as possible. Based on this relationship the world has been divided into different biome types. Wadi Rum (Arabic: وادي رم Wādī Ramm), known also as the Valley of the Moon (Arabic: وادي القمر Wādī al-Qamar), is a valley cut into the sandstone and granite rock in southern Jordan 60 km (37 mi) to the east of Aqaba; it is the largest wadi in Jordan.. Wadi Rum Protected Area was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? These plants, which look very different from your average leafy green, are ideally designed to survive in deserts. This unit helps students explore what plants require for survival, how plants grow, plant parts and their functions, how people and other animals use plants, special types of plants, where different kinds of plants can be found, and other plant-related topics. A succulent must be able to absorb large quantities of water in short periods. Several other adaptations are essential for the water storing habit to be effective. Water lost to evaporation and transpiration in a desert exceeds the amount of precipitation; most deserts average less than 25 cm (9.75 inches) of precipitation each year, concentrated in short local bursts. But an ad-supported version of Desert Golfing was impossible. I now come to offer you a heart which has been entirely yours, Madam, since first we met in the desert.'. English words for نبات include plant, vegetation, flora, cut up and huckleberry. The stems are cylindrical in shape and grow up to 1 foot long and 1 to 1½ inches thick. The Sahara is a good example of a hot desert. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. It's awful dry too. This ebook is designed to help you identify desert wildflowers by color, scientific name, region and common name. Desert Golfing is the distillation of Angry Birds into its purest essence. Hot deserts can be found close to the equator. With so many desert plants to choose from it can be difficult to identify which ones are the best for your home and garden. The stereotypical “desert plant” is the cacti. Perennial plants commonly survive dry times by becoming physiologically inactive. Succulent plants such as cacti, aloes, and agaves, beat the dry heat by storing plenty of water in their roots, stems, or leaves. an area of the ocean in which it is believed no marine life exists. Aquatic plants complete a landscape pond or water feature. > pitcher plant meaning in malayalam General pitcher plant meaning in malayalam. They are especially adapted for survival in the desert through their efficient use of water. Find a fertilizer that meets your plants specific mineral requirements, or choose an 'average' fertilizer such as a 6-12-6 or 10-10-10 mixture from your local nursery. A good way for non-desert gardeners to enjoy a taste of the desert backyard landscaping is with potted plants. Desert - Desert - Population and community development and structure: Desert plants and animals have many peculiar adaptations that enable them to survive long periods of moisture shortage and to take maximal advantage of short, infrequent wet periods. These desert plants aren't rare; after a while, you'll notice that they are everywhere -- … Bunny Ear cacti are available in both yellow and white spined varieties. It is one of Earth’s major types of ecosystems, supporting a community of plants and animals specially adapted to the harsh environment. Upon first glance, it may seem that this cactus does not contain any spines. The desert sage is one of the most beautiful desert wildflowers. Chances are, you’ve seen it in the succulent gardens and indoor terrariums that have become so popular in landscape and home decor. However, upon closer examination, these stones are actually living plants. Shaped like a large rosette, it has a very distinguishing look that’s similar to an artichoke. Posted by November 30, 2020 November 30, 2020. Also known by its scientific name Adenium obesum , this plant is native to the Sahel regions as well as the subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, and Saudi Arabia. Flax seed Meaning in Malayalam : Find the definition of Flax seed in Malayalam, OneIndia Malayalam Dictionary offers the meaning of Flax seed in Malayalam with synonyms, antonyms, adjective and more related words in Malayalam. In fact, this symbiotic relationship has caused the moth to evolve specialized organs to help collect and distribute the Joshua tree’s pollen as it travels from tree to tree. A plant of the genus Plantago, with a rosette of sessile leaves about 10 cm long with a narrow part instead of a petiole, and with a spike inflorescence with the flower spacing varying widely among the species.See also psyllium. Desert biome. There is a close relationship between the world distributional patterns of plants and animal species and the climatic types of the world. The extreme climate conditions cause the plant’s formation to be stripped down to just two leaves, which are fused together at its base where the root holds them together. The leaves sprout from a middle base from which they cascade outward and downward. These types of cactus spines are called glochids, and are nearly impossible to remove if caught in your clothing or skin. The People’s Choice 2020 Word Of The Year: 2020 Was A $#@#%%$@! As the official state flower of California, this poppy is known for its bright orange color. with the intention of never returning: Terrified of the approaching battle, he deserted his post just before dawn. From the popular ghost plant, to the architectural marvel of the crassula plant, there are so many varieties to choose from. Several desert plants are perennial (you need to plant them only once), hardy, low care, relatively drought tolerant, easy to find, pretty cheap to buy, and provide lovely color many times during the year. Its bright yellow flowers have five petals, and its stems can grow up to 12 inches tall. Its long bloom time occurs from March until November, and it can often be seen on roadsides where it covers the landscape in a thick yellow blanket. Desert plants' stems are very thick, allowing the plant to store water for use when there is no water in its environment. A succulent must be able to absorb large quantities of water in short periods. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. NETA f & m Hebrew Means "plant, shrub" in Hebrew. Beyond cacti, succulents, and wildflowers, the rest of the desert landscape is inhabited by trees, shrubs, and grasses. Succulent plants such as cacti, aloes, and agaves, beat the dry heat by storing plenty of water in their roots, stems, or leaves. “Monolith” vs. “Megalith”: What’s The Difference? to forsake or leave one's duty, obligations, etc. Once the flowers bloom, they will quickly spread their seeds and a sea of colorful blooms will grow for a short period of time before the plants die. All rights reserved. Matthews calls the Yakima Valley site in Washington state “desert in the shadow of Mount Rainier.”. Desert and deserted share etymological roots from the Latin word desertus, which means abandoned or deserted. Examples of thriving desert plants include various cactus species, prickly pears, yuccas and agaves. The Mexican thread grass will sprout new leaves in the spring. When tree aloe is planted in a garden, it should have ample space and be planted away from nearby buildings. Desert plant definition is - a plant suited to the environment of arid regions of little rainfall that often stores water in its tissues or hollow center and reduces transpiration by total or seasonal leaflessness or by a densely hairy, waxy, varnished, or otherwise modified leaf : a xerophilous plant. Greek name meaning "newly planted", from a word that was derived from νέος meaning "new" and φυτόν meaning "plant". The green trunk is due to the presence of chlorophyll. Depending on the level of sunlight it receives, these plants can take on various colors ranging from blue-gray to pinkish yellow. The Winecup is a perennial that bears cup-shaped flowers that range in color from light pink to deep magenta. Desert rains are often light and brief, and the soil dries rapidly under an intense sun. These plants, which look very different from your average leafy … What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? Fertilize your plants once a month.
, www.succulentsandmore.com | environment.nationalgeographic.com | www.amwua.org |, www.bhg.com | www.desertusa.com | www.gardeninggonewild.com 1, 2 |, www.learn2grow.com 1, 2 | www.gardeningknowhow.com | www.joyusgarden.com | www.lithops.info 1, 2 | www.ourhouseplants.com | www.houzz.com 1, 2 | homeguides.sfgate.com | worldofsucculents.com | www.gardenguides.com 1, 2 | www.fs.fed.us/ | www.wildflower.org | www.desertusa.com 1, 2, 3 | www.plantzafrica.com | www.public.asu.edu | www.desertharvesters.org | www.desertmuseum.org | landscaping.about.com | gardening.about.com | www.smgrowers.com 1, 2 | www.desert-tropicals.com | succulent-plant.com | davesgarden.com 1, 2 | www.hgtv.com | www.americansouthwest.net | cactiguide.com 1, 2, 3, Ghost Plant left CC Image courtesy of FarOutFlora on Flickr; right CC Image courtesy of Patrice78500 on Wikimedia Commons, Pencil Plant left CC Image courtesy of Mike Boucher on Flickr; right CC Image courtesy of Ralph Hockens on Flickr, Burro’s Tail left CC Image courtesy of Andrew Goloida on Flickr; right CC Image courtesy of Pymouss on Wikimedia Commons, Snow White Panda Plant, Paddle Plant left CC Image courtesy of Frank Vincentz on Wikimedia Commons; right CC Image courtesy of Anika Malone on Flickr, Penwiper Plant, Living Stone left CC Image courtesy of Dysmorodrepanis on Wikimedia Commons; right CC Image courtesy of Quinn Dombrowski on Flickr, Aloe polyphylla, Queen Victoria Agave left CC Image courtesy of J Brew on Flickr; right CC Image courtesy of Ken Bosma on Flickr, Crassula ‘Gollum’, Zebra Cactus left CC Image courtesy of Mokkie on Wikimedia Commons; right CC Image courtesy of Popperipopp on Wikimedia Commons, Golden Barrel left CC Image courtesy of H. Zell on Wikimedia Commons; right CC Image courtesy of Rob Young on Flickr, Bunny Ear Cactus, Woolly Senecio CC Images courtesy of Drew Avery on Flickr, Felt Bush, Fox Tail Agave, Jade plant, Topsy Turvy Echeveria, Vertical Leaf Senecio, Weeping Jade CC Images courtesy of Forest and Kim Starr on Flickr, California Poppy left CC Image courtesy of Neko Nomania on Flickr, Winecup left CC Image courtesy of Patrick Standish on Flickr; right CC Image courtesy of Clinton & Charles Robertson on Flickr, Aloe dorotheae, Banana Yucca, Blue Yucca, Candy Cactus, Cape Aloe, Desert Marigold, Desert Spoon, Indigo Bush, Palo Verde, Whitestem Paperflower CC Images courtesy of Stan Shebs on Wikimedia Commons, Desert Sage left CC Image courtesy of tdlucas5000 on Flickr; right CC Images courtesy of Stan Shebs on Wikimedia Commons, Tree Aloe left CC Image courtesy of Consultaplantas on Wikimedia Commons, Desert Mariposa Lily, Ocotillo CC Images courtesy of Joe Decruyenaere on Flickr, Cabbage Head Agave CC Image courtesy of Nauticashades on Wikimedia Commons, Twin-Flowered Agave CC Image courtesy of Raffi Kojian on Wikimedia Commons, Aloe aristata, Parry’s Agave CC Images courtesy of Raul654 on Wikimedia Commons, Queen Victoria Agave CC Image courtesy of Cliff on Flickr, Agave titanota CC Image courtesy of Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz on Wikimedia Commons, Mezcal Ceniza, Miniature Agave CC Images courtesy of Juan Ignacio 1976 on Flickr, Dinner Plate Aeonium, Strawberry Hedgehog CC Images courtesy of James Steakley on Wikimedia Commons, Aeonium canariense CC Image courtesy of Peter Coleman on Wikimedia Commons, Aeonium decorum CC Image courtesy of Winfried Bruenken on Wikimedia Commons, Aeonium leucoblepharum CC Image courtesy of stephen boisvert on Flickr, Echeveria colorata, Echeveria lilacina, Spiny Aloe CC Images courtesy of Jean-Michel Moullec on Flickr, Biznaga Gigante, Devil’s Head, Pincushion Euphorbia, Spanish Bayonet, Tiger Tooth Aloe, Twisted Barrel Cactus CC Images courtesy of Amante Darmanin on Flickr, Aloinopsis orpenii, Giant Claret Cup CC Images courtesy of Michael Wolf on Wikimedia Commons, Airplane Plant, Aloinopsis schooneesii, Aloinopsis serifera, Baseball Plant CC Images courtesy of C T Johansson on Wikimedia Commons, Organ pipe cactus CC Image courtesy of Ken Lund on Flickr, Queen of the Night CC Image courtesy of dafiana on Flickr, Lady of the Night CC Image courtesy of Malcolm Manners on Flickr, Hildmann’s Cereus CC Image courtesy of José Eugenio Gómez Rodríguez on Wikimedia Commons, Peruvian Apple Cactus CC Image courtesy of Huerto del Cura on Wikimedia Commons, Medusa’s Head, Pleated Cereus CC Images courtesy of Leonora (Ellie) Enking on Flickr, Crassula ‘Buddha’s Temple’ CC Image courtesy of Nadiatalent on Wikimedia Commons, Black Prince, Blue Finger CC Images courtesy of Megan Hansen on Flickr, Black Knight, Echeveria harmsii, Graptopetalum pentandrum, Graptopetalum mendozae, Graptopetalum superbum, Haworthia bolusii, String of Bananas, String of Pearls CC Images courtesy of salchuiwt on Flickr, Echeveria Lola CC Image courtesy of Diane Wellman on Flickr, Hen and Chicks CC Image courtesy of brewbooks on Flickr, Echeveria agavoides CC Image courtesy of stephen boisvert on Flickr, Echeveria pulidonis CC Image courtesy of Dianakc on Wikimedia Commons, Fishhook Barrel Cactus, Panda Plant CC Image courtesy of Nova on Wikimedia Commons, Graptopetalum bellum CC Image courtesy of Salicyna on Wikimedia Commons, Haworthia viscosa CC Image courtesy of Jungle Rebel on Flickr, Haworthia coarctata, Lithops bromfieldii CC Image courtesy of Dysmorodrepanis on Wikimedia Commons, Engelmann’s Hedgehog CC Image courtesy of Marshal Hedin on Flickr, Indian Paintbrush, Lace Hedgehog, Scarlet Hedgehog CC Images courtesy of Andrey Zharkikh on Flickr, Arizona Rainbow Cactus CC Image courtesy of Matjaž Wigele on Wikimedia Commons, Mother of Thousands CC Image courtesy of JMK on Wikimedia Commons, Lithops schwantesii CC Image courtesy of Ivan I. Boldyrev on Wikimedia Commons, Lithops gracilidelineata CC Image courtesy of Averater on Wikimedia Commons, Old Lady Cactus CC Image courtesy of Dallas Krentzel on Flickr, Owl’s Eyes CC Image courtesy of Peter A. Mansfeld on Wikimedia Commons, Feather Cactus, Ladyfinger Cactus CC Images courtesy of Petar43 on Wikimedia Commons, Moonstones CC Image courtesy of Col Ford and Natasha de Vere on Flickr, Cape Blanco CC Image courtesy of Rosewoman on Flickr, Blue Ice Plants CC Image courtesy of Jason Baker on Flickr, Canary Island Spurge CC Image courtesy of Akos Kokai on Flickr, Soaptree Yucca CC Image courtesy of cariliv on Flickr, Desert Five-Spot CC Image courtesy of Curtis Clark on Wikimedia Commons, Fairy Duster CC Image courtesy of Melburnian on Wikimedia Commons, Mormon Tea CC Image courtesy of James St. John on Flickr, Pink Muhly Grass CC Image courtesy of Ken Kennedy on Flickr, Bastard Toadflax, Showy Milkweed CC Image courtesy of Matt Lavin on Flickr.